Currently, researchers are testing 58 vaccines in clinical trials
on humans and at least 87 are under active investigation in preclinical trials, according to The New York Times
. Since March, 13 immunizations have reached the final stages of testing. Pfizer and Moderna have come out as frontrunners
, each with early effectiveness rates of over 90 percent. Unlike Pfizer, Moderna did accept funding from Operation Warp Speed for its research and testing. Pfizer submitted a request for FDA authorization
on November 20 which is expected to take several weeks to review. Moderna announced
that it was applying for authorization, and if it succeeds, the first injections could be available on December 21.